Steel structure is a structure which is made from the organized combination of custom-designed structural steel members to meet architecture and engineering requirements of users. This type of structure is widely used in construction projects of medium and large scale by useful features of steel.
Steel structure involves sub-structure or members in a building made from structural steel. Structural steel is steel construction material which fabricated with a specific shape and chemical composition to suit a project’s applicable specifications.
v Super-quick to build, as a lot of work can be pre-fabbed at the factory.
v Resisting dynamic (changing) forces.
v A wide range of ready-made structural sections are available.
v Be made to take any kind of shape, and clad with any type of material
v Joining methods: bolting, welding, and riveting
The main ingredients of structural steel are iron and carbon. Manganese, alloys and certain chemicals also added to the iron and carbon to improve strength and durability.
Depending on each project's applicable specifications, structural steel is fabricated by hot or cold rolling or made by welding together flat or bent plates.
Structural steel has various shapes, sizes and gauges. Common shapes include the I-beam, channels, and angles.
· I-Beam: I-shaped cross section.
· Z-Shape: has half a flange in opposite directions
· HSS-Shape: Hollow structural section includes square, rectangular, circular (pipe) and elliptical cross sections
· Angle: L-shaped cross section
· Structural Channels: C-beam or C-shaped cross section
· Tee: T-shaped cross section
· Rail Profile: Strap rail, Flanged rail, Baulk rail, Barlow rail, Flat bottomed rail, Double-headed rail, Bullhead rail, Tangential turnouts, Grooved rail
· Bar: a piece of metal, rectangular cross-sectioned and long, but not so wide so as to be called a sheet.
· Rod: a round or square and long piece of metal, see also rebar and dowel.
· Plate: metal sheets thicker than 4 mm.
· Truss structures: Bar or truss members
· Frame structures: Beams and columns
· Grids structures: latticed structure or dome
· Prestressed structures
· Beam bridge
· Truss bridge: truss members
· Arch bridge
· Cable-stayed bridge
· Suspension bridge
· Structural steel is fabricated off-site under controlled conditions, ensuring a high quality product and reducing the number of costly fixes at the job site. This also allows for just- in-time delivery, accelerating overall project schedules.
· Today's modern mills produce steel containing an average of 88% recycled material. At the end of a building's life cycle, 100% of the steel frame can be recycled. Steel is the choice for environmentally conscious projects.
· Structural steel leads the construction industry with a fully intergrated supply chain using advanced technology at all stages of design and construction. This technology has been proven to reduce or eliminate errors, improve safety and lower project costs.
· Structural steel is reliable and predictable. It's produced to precise tolerances in size and strength. This makes steel easier to design and use. Furthermore, since it's at full strength as soon as it's errected, project schedules are predictably shorter.
· Structural steel provides owners with buildings that generate revenue earlier, maximize the amount and use of floor space, are easy to modify and easier to sell. They are also aesthetically pleasing.
· Structural steel is the most economical building framinig material. Project costs are lowered as a result of reduced labor and equipment requirements, lower foundation costs and lower ongoing building maintenance expenses.
1. Cost savings
Moreover, 98% of all steel structure can be recycled into new steel products without reducing physical properties.
2. Quick erection
The accuracy of steel components speeds up the process and allows monitoring on the management software to complete sooner.
3. Health and Safety
Structural steel is manufactured at the factory and rapid erection on the construction site by skilled personnel make steel structure safe.
New applications, loading conditions, vertical expansions can modify in the future and changes in owner's desires.